Hattua was the main city of the Hittite state from their beginning in the 17th century BCE until the collapse of the state in the early 12th century BCE. By the 12th century the city was covering an area of 182 hectares which was surrounded by a 3.3 km long defensive wall. The first westerner to visit and write about the city ruins was Charles Texier in 1834, but it was only in the 1880s that Archibald Sayce and William Wright identified the city as the Hittite capital. The first proper excavations were made by Hugo Winckler and Theodor Makridi in 1906, and since 1931 the city has been under almost continuous excavation by the German Archeological Institute under Kurt Bittel, Peter Neve, Jürgen Seeher, and currently Andreas Schachner. Other than the numerous monumental structures and artifacts, the excavations revealed over 30 thousand tablet fragments which were part of the Hittite royal archives.
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Sacred pool complex chambers (Südburg): Chamber II||
Yerkapı (Southern gate and walls of the city)||
Postern below Yerkapı||
Ertuğrul Anıl, 2011, 2018.
Google Earth, 2018.
Tayfun Bilgin, 2006, 2010, 2014, 2018.
Cüneyt Süer, 2011.
Ercüment Süer, 2011.
Bora Bilgin, 2006, 2011.
A. D. Riddle, 2011.
Metin Alparslan, AA 2013.
Heinrich Otten, MDOG 87, 1955.
Th. Beran, MDOG 93, 1962.
Peter Neve, AA 1980 and AA 1993.
Jürgen Seeher, AA 1997 and AA 2005.
Ali and Belkıs Dinçol, GsImparati, 2002.
(List of Abbreviations)