Göllüdağ is a large fortified mountain top (2172 m) settlement of Neo-Hittite period. It is near the village of Kömürcü in Gölcük, Niğde. Göllüdağ excavations were initially made by Remzi Oğuz Arık in 1934 and later by Burhan Tezcan in 1968-69. Further research was done by Wulf Schirmer between 1992 and 1998. The settlement dates to the end of the 8th century BCE. The ruins are located right next to the crater lake of the inactive volcano. A defensive wall surrounds the settlement where several building groups can be seen.
The largest building measures about 112 by 228 meters and occupies the highest location. Two large double portal lions, two portal lions, two sphinxes and two column bases with lion decorations have been found at and around the outer and inner gates of the entrance of this building at its south side. The double lions of the outer gate are made of white andesite. The better-preserved west wing lions are about 1.5 meter high and 2 meters long. In 1933 these west wing lions were sent to the Kayseri Museum, but 2018 they were transferred to the Niğde Museum. Only the lower section of the east wing lions has been recovered. The outer gate also had two column bases decorated with 4 seated lions on the corners. One of the highly weathered bases is in the Kayseri Museum and the other is still in Göllüdağ. Two single portal lions were also found in the gate area. While the head is carved in full, the body sections are in high relief on two sides of the stone block. Better preserved east wing lion is 0.88 meter high and 1 meter long and currently in the Niğde Museum. The west wing lion, which is missing the head section, is in the Kayseri Museum. A pair of half-finished sphinxes found by the flanks of the inner gate and two broken lion heads, one from near the inner gate of the building and one from around the southern city gate are also in the Niğde Museum.
Click on the pictures for larger images.
General view of the site
Double portal lions
Sphinxes and others
Arık, R. O. "Göllüdağ Hafriyatı," Türk Tarih Arkeologya ve Etnoğrafya Dergisi 3, 1936: 3-48.
Tezcan, B. "1968 Göllüdağ Kazısı," Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi 17, 1969: 211-235.
Tezcan, B. "1969 Göllüdağ Kazısı," Türk Arkeoloji Dergisi 30, 1992: 1-30.
Schirmer, W. "Der Göllüdağ im anatolischen Hochland und seine Bauanlagen aus dem 8. Jahrhundert v. Chr." Fridericiana
Zeitschrift der Universitat Karlsruhe (TH), Heft 51, 1996: 9-26.
Tayfun Bilgin, 2006, 2017, 2019.
Bora Bilgin, 2017.
Burhan Tezcan, 1969.
Google Maps, 2017.
Ertuğrul Anıl, 2020.