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Zincirli (Sam'al)

Sam'al was the capital of a Neo-Hittite/Aramaen kingdom of the region from about 10th century to 7th century BCE. It was first excavated by German Oriental Society between 1888 and 1902. They found a heavily fortified citadel within a larger double walled fortification with 100 bastions and three gates. Excavations revealed giant statues of lions and numerous orthostats and inscribed steles in Aramaic, Phoenician, and a local dialect of Aramaic called Samalian. Since 2006 the site is being excavated by a team from the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago under David Schloen. Most of the finds are in Istanbul Archeology Museum and Vorderasiatisches Museum in Berlin.



Click on the pictures larger images.

City Plan
City plan Citadel plan 3D Citadel Plan - Pergamon Museum Berlin
Southern City Gate
Louvre, Vorderasiatisches Museum, Istanbul Museum, Gaziantep Museum
Reconstruction of outer city gates, R. Koldeway Louvre Museum - B. Bilgin, 2013 Winged griffin, Vorderasiatisches Museum - F. von Luschan, 1902 Winged griffin, Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2006 Mounted warrior with a severed head, Vorderasiatisches Museum - F. von Luschan, 1902 Winged griffin and sphinx, Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2006 Two men with drinking cups, Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2006 Hunter and a rabbit, Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2003 Animals in hunt, Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2003 in Gaziantep Museum - F. Anıl, 2018
Outer Citadel Gate - West Wing Orthostats
All west wing orthostats are in Istanbul Archaeology Museum
Drawing of outer citadel gate, view from north - R. Koldeway B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2003 B. Bilgin, 2003 B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2003 B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2011 B. Bilgin, 2011 B. Bilgin, 2011 B. Bilgin, 2011 B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2006
Outer Citadel Gate - East Wing Orthostats
All east wing orthostats are in Vorderasiatisches Museum
Vorderasiatisches Museum Vorderasiatisches Museum Vorderasiatisches Museum Vorderasiatisches Museum Vorderasiatisches Museum Vorderasiatisches Museum T. Bilgin, 2010
T. Bilgin, 2010 T. Bilgin, 2010 Vorderasiatisches Museum Vorderasiatisches Museum Vorderasiatisches Museum Vorderasiatisches Museum Vorderasiatisches Museum T. Bilgin, 2010
Inner Citadel Gate - Lions and Sphinxes
Gate lions - F. von Luschan, 1911 (1902) Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2006 Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2006 Louvre - T. Bilgin, 2007 Louvre - T. Bilgin, 2007
Gate Q Lions and Phoenician Inscription of Kulamuwa
Vorderasiatisches Museum
View of Gate Q from east - F. von Luschan, 1902 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Incription of Kulamuwa, Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010
Statue of a king
Istanbul Archaeology Museum
B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2006 B. Bilgin, 2006
Hilani IV
Entrance of Hilani IV - F. von Luschan, 1911 Vorderasiatisches Museum - F. von Luschan, 1911 Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2006 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010
Hilani III
Gaziantep Museum - F. Anıl, 2018 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Istanbul Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Istanbul Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010
Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2010 Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2010
Others
View of Building K from south - F. von Luschan, 1902 View from inside Building J towards Gate Q - F. von Luschan, 1902 Column base from Building K, Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Column base from Building K, Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2003 A stele of Kulamuwa (from near Hilani II), Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 From east wall of Hilani I, Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Aramean inscription of Barrakib, Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2006 Aramean inscription of Barrakib, Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Sam'alian inscription of Kuttamuwa, Gaziantep Museum - F. Anıl, 2018 Stele from Ördekburnu with a Samalian inscription, Istanbul - B. Bilgin, 2011 Horse sculpture fragments (from near Hilani II), Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Sphinx from Hilani II, Istanbul Museum - B. Bilgin, 2003 Gate lion, Istanbul Museum - F. von Luschan, 1911 From a field outside the city, Gaziantep Museum - B. Bilgin, 2009 Gaziantep Museum - B. Bilgin, 2009 Adana Museum - T. Bilgin, 2017 Cur. loc. unknown - W. Ward, 1887 Cur. loc. unknown - F. von Luschan, 1902
Storm-god statue from Gerçin
Storm-god statue from Gercin, Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Storm-god statue from Gercin, Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010 Lion heads from the base of the statue, Vorderasiatisches Museum - T. Bilgin, 2010



Literature:
Gilibert, A. Syro-Hittite monumental art and the archaeology of performance: the stone reliefs at Carchemish and Zincirli in the earlier first millennium BCE Berlin, 2011.
Orthmann, W. Untersuchungen zur späthethitischen Kunst, Bonn, 1971.
von Luschan, F., E. Schrader, and E. Sachau, Ausgrabungen in Sendschirli, vol. I. Berlin, 1893.
von Luschan, F. and R. Koldeway, Ausgrabungen in Sendschirli, vol. II. Berlin, 1898.
von Luschan, F. Ausgrabungen in Sendschirli, vol. III. Berlin, 1902.
von Luschan, F. and G. Jacoby, Ausgrabungen in Sendschirli, vol. IV. Berlin, 1911.
For detailed information on the site of Zincirli, see https://zincirli.uchicago.edu.

Image sources:
Bora Bilgin, 2003, 2006, 2009, 2011, 2013.
Tayfun Bilgin, 2007, 2010.
Figen Anıl, 2018.
Felix von Luschan, 1902, 1911.
William H. Ward, AJA 1, 1887.
Vorderasiatisches Museum.


Kings of Sam'al
Gabbar(from ca. 920)
BMH (or BNH) son/brother(?) of Gabbar
Hayyason/descendant(?) of Gabbar(from ca. 870/860)
Sa`il son of Hayya
Kulamuwason of Hayya (ca. 840-815)
QRL (Qurila?/Qarli?)
Panamuwa Ison of QRL(until ca. 745)
    An usurper after the murder of heir Barsur
Panamuwa IIson of Barsur(ca. 743?-733/2)
Barrakibson of Panamuwa II (ca. 733/2-712?)
    Assyrian occupation