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Fraktin Relief

This relief from mid-13th century BCE is located near the Gümüşören (Fraktin) village of Develi, about 78 km to the city of Kayseri. Sculptured rock-panel shows two groups of figures in a religious act. The figures are identified by labels in Luwian hieroglyphs. The relief was first noticed by Sayce in 1880. It is about 1.3 meters by 3.2 meters in size. The scene on the left shows Hittite king Hattusili III pouring libation to the Storm God. Ie is identified with hieroglyph in front of him as "Great King Hattusili" (MAGNUS.REX HATTI+li). The scene on the right shows Hattusili's wife "Great Queen Puduhepa" (MAGNUS.DOMINA Pu-tu-ha-pa), depicted clothed from head to foot in her priestess robe, pouring libation to the goddess Hepat. This scene on the right is in unfinished condition and the figures lack details. Both scenes have an altar in the middle. There is a bird figure on the altar in the left scene, and possibly a piece of bread on the right scene. Further to the right of the reliefs, there is also an unfinished inscription in hieroglyphic Luwian, which has been read by Hans Güterbock as "daughter of the country of Kizzuwatna, beloved of the gods" (ká-zu(wa)-na REGIO FILIUS DEUS á-zi/a-mi) This certainly refers to Puduhepa, who was a daughter of a priest from Kizzuwatna (Cilicia). Hattusili is shown with a horned hat like the gods, and this may mean the relief was made after his death during the reign of his son Tudhaliya IV. Thus it should date to the second half of the 13th century BCE. The plateau above the relief has at least two libation holes, which further indicate that the site was used for religious ceremonies. A replica of the relief can be seen in Kayseri Museum.


Click on the pictures for larger images.

T. Bilgin, 2009 T. Bilgin, 2009 T. Bilgin, 2009 Hattusili and the Storm-god - T. Bilgin, 2009 Puduhepa and Hepat - T. Bilgin, 2009 T. Bilgin, 2009
Libation holes - T. Bilgin, 2009 Libation hole - T. Bilgin, 2009 K. Kohlmeyer, 1983 K. Kohlmeyer, 1983

Literature:
Alexander, R. L. "Contributions to the interpretation of the Fraktın reliefs," in Acts of the 3rd International Congress of
    Hittitology.
1998: 15-20.
Gonnet, H. "Remarques sur le monument de Beşkardeş à la lumière d'une nouvelle interpretation de Fraktın," in Acts of the 3rd
    International Congress of Hittitology.
247-59.
Kohlmeyer, K. "Felsbilder der hethitischen Großreichszeit", Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica 15, 1983: 7-154 (67-74).
Laroche E. "Les reliefs de Fraktin," FsT.Özgüç 1989: 301-302.
Laroche E. "Les deux reliefs de Firaktin," Anadolu 23, 1984: 123-129.
Özgüç, T. "Excavations at Fraktin near Develi and Researches in Anti-Taurus Region," Belleten 12, 1948: 266–7.
Özgüç, T. "Finds at Firaktin," Belleten 19, 1955: 301–7.
Ussishkin, D. "Hollows, 'Cup-Marks', and Hittite Stone Monuments," AnSt 25, 1975: 85-103.

Image sources:
Tayfun Bilgin, 2009.
Kay Kohlmeyer, 1983.