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Eflatunpınar

It is located about 22 km north of the town of Beyşehir. The monument is formed as a rectangular shaped pond fed with the waters from a nearby spring. The most prominent part is the high wall of reliefs that stand on the north edge of the roughly 34 by 30 meter rectangular pond. It is built with large stone blocks. In the center are the Storm God and the Sun Goddess with winged sun-disks above each. Around them are ten spirits or hybrid creatures supporting the the two winged sun disks above the gods and an enourmous winged sun disk above them. The base has five mountain gods that are partially visible. The central three of the mountain gods could be interpreted as mountain-spring gods with multiple spring holes on them. The stage altogether may be interpreted as a cosmic scene with heavens at the top and earth at the bottom, with gods and spirits holding the heavens in between. The façade of the monument is roughly 7 meters in length and 7 meters in height including the mountain gods at the base.

To the right and left of this facade are located couple of goddess figures embedded into the walls of the pond. There is a rectangular platform by the south wall with heavily damaged remains of a god and a goddess reliefs on its pond facing side. Several other sculptured fragments have been found inside and around the pond. The largest piece is a triple bull protome to the south of the pond which is not in its original location. That piece was used as a filling material in the wall of a Roman era dam that was built on the southwest side of the pond. Eflatunpınar is one of the few examples of frontal portrayal of human forms in Hittite art of the Empire period (see also Fasıllar and Akpınar).

No inscriptions were found at the site, but based on its proximity to Yalburt, Köylütolu and Hatip this monument may be dated to the 2nd half of 13th century BCE. The site was subjected to rescue excavations and surface clean up between 1996 and 2002, and landscaping, restoration, and fencing in 2011-2012.


Click on the pictures for larger images.

Old pictures
J.H.Haynes, 1887, Harvard University Library J.H.Haynes, 1887, Harvard University Library The site prior to any clean-up With low water level where base figures are visible - P.Oszvald Site plan - A. Sırrı Özenir
Prior to restorations (2009)
T. Bilgin 2009 T. Bilgin 2009 T. Bilgin 2009 T. Bilgin 2009 T. Bilgin 2009 T. Bilgin 2009
After 2011-2012 restorations (2018)
E. Anıl, 2018 E. Anıl, 2018 E. Anıl, 2018 E. Anıl, 2018 E. Anıl, 2018 T. Bilgin 2018 T. Bilgin 2018



Literature:
Bachmann, M. and S. Özenir, "Das Quellenheiligtum von Eflatun Pınar," Archäologischer Anzeiger 2004: 85–122.
Bittel, K. “Iflatun Pinar,” in RlA 5, 1976–1980: 33–36.
Börker-Klähn, J., L. Meitner, K. Peckeruhn. "Neues zu Iflatun-Pınar," ArOr 55, 1987: 176–79.
Börker-Klähn, J. "Noch einmal Iflatun Pınar," in Aspects of Art and Iconography: Anatolia and Its Neighbors (FsN.Özgüç), Ankara, 1993: 339–55.
Ehringhaus, H. Götter, Herrscher, Inschriften. Die Felsreliefs der hethitischen Großreichszeit in der Türkei,. Mainz, 2005: 50–57.
Kohlmeyer, K. "Felsbilder der hethitischen Großreichszeit", Acta Praehistorica et Archaeologica 15, 1983: 7–154 (34–42).
Neve, P., "Einige Gedanken zu dem Stierreliefblock von Eflatunpınar," Kulturgeschicten (FsHaas), Saarbrücken, 2001: 291–93.
Özenir, S. "Eflatunpınar Hitit Kutsal Anıt-Havuzu 1998 Yılı Çalışmaları", Akten des IV. Internationalen Kongresses für Hethitologie, Würzburg 4-8 Oktober 1999, StBoT 45, Wiesbaden, 2002: 532–40.

Image sources:
Tayfun Bilgin, 2009, 2018.
Ertuğrul Anıl, 2018.
Peter Oszvald, Kunst - und Ausstellungshalle der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, 2002.
Sırrı Özenir, 2002.
Harvard University Library