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Aleppo

Aleppo (Halab, Halep) came under Hittite rule in 15th century BCE. In 14th century BCE, after his Syrian campaing, Suppiluliuma I installed his son Telipinu as the ruler of Aleppo. Telipinu was succeeded by his son Talmi-Sharruma. During the empire period, the city was overshadowed by Karkamis, which was the main administrative center of the Hittites in Syria. Aleppo was the center of the Storm-God cult in Syria.

Aleppo survived the attacks of the Sea Peoples as a Neo-Hittite city state beyond 1200 BCE. Excavations in the Aleppo citadel revealed remains of a Storm-god temple with multiple orthostats which date to post empire period, possibly around 11th to 10th centuries. The city came under Assyrian rule in the 9th century BCE.

A dedicatory inscription of Talmi-Sharruma (ALEPPO 1) is the only monumental inscription from the Empire period. Most of the orthostats from Neo-Hittite period are still visible in the citadel while some others and in the Aleppo Museum. A large stele of Storm-god, which was excavated in Babylon at the palace complex of Nabuchadnezzar II in 1899 (last row of pictures below), was apparently carried away from Aleppo as a trophy. The stele is currently in Istanbul Archaelogy Museum.


Click on pictures for a larger image.

Talmi-Sharruma inscription (ALEPPO 1)
ALEPPO 1 - G. Bell ALEPPO 1 - G. Bell
Aleppo Citadel - Temple of Storm God
Aleppo Citadel - D. Osseman Aleppo Citadel - D. Osseman Aleppo Citadel - D. Osseman Aleppo Citadel - D. Osseman
Aleppo Citadel - D. Osseman Aleppo Citadel - D. Osseman
Aleppo Citadel - K. Kohlmeyer Aleppo Citadel - K. Kohlmeyer Aleppo Citadel - K. Kohlmeyer Aleppo Citadel - K. Kohlmeyer Aleppo Citadel - D. Osseman
Storm God Stele (BABYLON 1)
BABYLON 1 - B. Bilgin BABYLON 1 - B. Bilgin BABYLON 1 - B. Bilgin BABYLON 1 - R. Koldewey


Literature:
Gonnella, J., W. Khayyata, K. Kohlmeyer, Die Zitadelle von Aleppo und der Tempel des Wettergottes: Neue Forschungen und Entdeckungen. Münster: Rhema, 2005.
Hawkins, J. D. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions, Vol 1, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2000: 235-38, 388-97, 562 and plts. 206, 209-12, 320.
Hawkins, J. D. "Cilicia, the Amuq, and Aleppo: New Light in Dark Age," Near Eastern Archaeology 72.4, Dec. 2009: 164-173.
Hawkins, J. D. "The inscriptions of the Aleppo Temple," AnSt 61, 2011: 35-54.
Kohlmeyer, K. “The Temple of the Storm God in Aleppo during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages.” Near Eastern Archaeology 74.4, 2009: 190-202.
Laroche, E. 1956. "L'inscription hittite d'Alep," Syria 33: 131-141 (ALEPPO 1)

Image sources:
Gertrude Bell, 1909, University of Newcastle Gertrude Bell Project (www.gerty.ncl.ac.uk)
Dick Osseman, 2009, Aleppo Citadel Gallery.
Kay Kohlmeyer, NEA 74.4, 2009.
Bora Bilgin, 2006.
Bora Bilgin, Ertuğrul Anıl, 2011.
Robert Koldewey, Wissenschaftliche Veröffentlichung der Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft I, Leipzig 1900.