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Aleppo

Aleppo (Halab, Halep) came under Hittite rule in 15th century BCE. In 14th century BCE, after his Syrian campaing, Suppiluliuma I installed his son Telipinu as the ruler of Aleppo. Telipinu was succeeded by his son Talmi-Sharruma. During the empire period, the city was overshadowed by Karkamis, which was the main administrative center of the Hittites in Syria. Aleppo was the center of the Storm-God cult in Syria.

Aleppo survived the attacks of the Sea Peoples as a Neo-Hittite city state beyond 1200 BCE. Excavations in the Aleppo citadel revealed remains of a Storm-god temple with multiple orthostats which date to post empire period, possibly around 11th to 10th centuries. The city came under Assyrian rule in the 9th century BCE.

A dedicatory inscription of Talmi-Sharruma (ALEPPO 1) is the only monumental inscription from the Empire period. Until the Syrian civil war most of the orthostats from Neo-Hittite period were still visible in the citadel while some others were in the Aleppo Museum. A large stele of Storm-god (BABYLON 1) and a few other items, which were excavated in Babylon at the palace complex of Nabuchadnezzar II in 1899 (last row of pictures below), were apparently carried away from Aleppo as trophies. The stele is currently in Istanbul Archaelogy Museum.


Click on pictures for a larger image.

Talmi-Sharruma inscription (ALEPPO 1)
ALEPPO 1 as built into a wall upside down - G. Bell, 1909 ALEPPO 1 - G. Bell, 1909
Aleppo Citadel - Temple of Storm God
Storm God Temple at Aleppo Citadel - D. Osseman, 2009 Storm God Temple at Aleppo Citadel - wmf.org, 2010 Storm God Temple - D. Osseman, 2009 Storm God Temple - D. Osseman, 2009 Storm God Temple - D. Osseman, 2009 Storm God Temple - wmf.org (2010) Storm God Temple - wmf.org (2010) Storm God Temple - D. Osseman, 2009 Fırtına Tanrısı tapınağı - wmf.org, 2010
Storm God Temple - D. Osseman, 2009 Storm God Temple - K. Kohlmeyer, 2009 Storm God Temple - K. Kohlmeyer, 2009 Storm God Temple - K. Kohlmeyer, 2009 Storm God Temple - K. Kohlmeyer, 2009 Storm God Temple - wmf.org (2010) Storm God Temple - wmf.org (2010)
Storm God Temple - wmf.org (2004) Storm God Temple - wmf.org (2004) Stele in Aleppo Museum - D. Osseman, 2009
Storm God Stele (BABYLON 1) and a votive bowl (BABYLON 2)
BABYLON 1 - B. Bilgin, 2011 BABYLON 1 - B. Bilgin, 2011 BABYLON 1 - B. Bilgin, 2011 BABYLON 1 - J. D. Hawkins, 2000 BABYLON 2 - British Museum


Literature:
Gonnella, J., W. Khayyata, K. Kohlmeyer, Die Zitadelle von Aleppo und der Tempel des Wettergottes: Neue Forschungen und Entdeckungen. Münster: Rhema, 2005.
Hawkins, J. D. Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions, Vol 1, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2000: 235-38, 388-97, 562 and plts. 206, 209-12, 320.
Hawkins, J. D. "Cilicia, the Amuq, and Aleppo: New Light in Dark Age," Near Eastern Archaeology 72.4, Dec. 2009: 164-173.
Hawkins, J. D. "The inscriptions of the Aleppo Temple," AnSt 61, 2011: 35-54.
Kohlmeyer, K. “The Temple of the Storm God in Aleppo during the Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages.” Near Eastern Archaeology 74.4, 2009: 190-202.
Laroche, E. 1956. "L'inscription hittite d'Alep," Syria 33: 131-141 (ALEPPO 1)

Image sources:
Gertrude Bell, 1909, University of Newcastle Gertrude Bell Project (www.gerty.ncl.ac.uk)
Dick Osseman, 2009, Aleppo Citadel Gallery.
World Monuments Fund (wmf.org).
Kay Kohlmeyer, NEA 74.4, 2009.
Bora Bilgin, 2011.
J. David Hawkins, CHLI v1, 2000.
British Museum (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0).